Dead Cow Trail Closed by NPS

March 7th, 2020
Dead Cow Trail, 2017

Dead Cow Trail (pre-Woolsey Fire)

The National Park Service has closed Dead Cow trail in the Cheseboro area of the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area. The trail runs between Paolo Comado and Sheep’s Corral. They also closed an illegally constructed trail in the vicinity, which had its own safety concerns and negative impacts to the area.

Dead Cow has been gradually degrading over the years, making it one of the more technical trails on National Park Service land. It is also in dire need of maintenance and safety improvements. When an uptick in injuries and accidents was seen over the last year, NPS rangers attention was drawn to the area. They inspected Dead Cow trail and discovered the unauthorized trail in the vicinity.

This closure is the direct result of a few rogue mountain bikers, who, without concern for the impact of their actions or its repercussions for the mountain biking community, illegally constructed a trail in the vicinity of Dead Cow. This took place as nearby neighborhoods were still in recovery from the Woolsey fire, and the area’s chaparral was especially vulnerable post-fire.

We condemn this action, and cannot condone any rogue or illegal trail construction on public land. It affects our ability to ask for new trails, and hurts both our image and our relationship with land managers.

CORBA has reached out to the National Park Service, with offers to help inform the public of the closure, and to help do needed maintenance on Dead Cow trail. The areas impacted by the illegal trail will also need rehabilitation and restoration.

The closure stands until further notice, and people who ignore the closure are subject to citation. For mountain bikers who desire jumps, berms and other park-like features, join our Dirt Church maintenance at Sapwi Bike Park every Sunday morning, and help us get to stage 3, with expert jump lines and other features.

Please stay off Dead Cow trail, and spread the word.  Watch for upcoming volunteer work days in the area.

Speak up for funding Public Lands

March 6th, 2020
We need your help by asking your Senators to fund public lands today.

Apparently the Senate is trying to figure out how to pass two important bills to fund public lands. The outdoor community has been working on them for years, and we have an unusual opportunity to get them passed right now.
These bills – dedicated funding for the Land and Water Conservation Fund (LWCF) and the Restore our Parks Act (ROPA) – will provide funding for parks and public lands and address the deferred maintenance backlog for National Parks. As written, there’s nothing in it for the Forest Service who seem even more chronically underfunded than the other agencies, and we’ve reflected that in our comments.
We need your help to get these bills passed and to make sure that National Forests and BLM lands are also included to receive funding along with National Parks.
The Outdoor Alliance have made it easy to send a message to your Senators right here. The outdoor community has been a powerful force in making public lands funding a priority to Congress, and we need your help to get across the finish line this week.

Cancelled: COSCA Spring Trailwork – March 21, 2020

March 2nd, 2020
COSCA Spring Trailwork

COSCA Spring Trailwork

UPDATE 3/14/2020:  In the wake of recent public health concerns, COSCA has cancelled this trailwork event. Stay tuned for new volunteer, opportunities. and most of all, keep yourselves safe!

 

Join CORBA, the Conejo Open Space Conservation Authority, the Conejo Recreation and Parks District, and our friends at the Santa Monica Mountains Trails Council for a day of trailwork in Wildwood Regional Park. We’ll be working on the Santa Rosa trail.

COSCA Spring and Fall trailwork days are always a lot of fun, with over 100 volunteers giving back to the trails. After trailwork, the CRPD rangers will cook a barbecue lunch for all the volunteers. Details are on the flyer, or view a PDF here. Google Map directions are here.

March 21 schedule:

7:30 am: Meet at the inner (lower) lot for check-in at the registration table, complete a release form and pick up some snacks.

8:00 am: Trailwork begins with and orientation and safety instructions, then crew leaders direct teams to the work sites.

12:00 noon: Volunteers treated to lunch!

To help us plan for this event, please sign up in advance with our online form.

San Gabriels Protection bill Passes House

February 22nd, 2020

Last week four bills affecting California passed the House. H.R.3820, the “San Gabriel Mountains Foothills and Rivers Protection Act”, and H.R.1708, the “Rim of the Valley Corridor Preservation Act,” were rolled into a land protection bill with four other bills including H.R. 2250. the Northwest California Wilderness, Recreation, and Working Forests Act, and the H.R.2199 Central Coast Heritage Protection Act–both of which have earned the support of local mountain biking organizations. Local mountain bike clubs and IMBA have been key players in the development of these bills. The combined bill, H.R. 2546, Protecting America’s Wilderness Act, passed the House on February 12, with 6 house republicans voting in favor.

San Gabriel Mountains, Foothills and Rivers Protection Act

San Gabriel Mountains Foothills and Rivers Protection Act

San Gabriel Mountains Foothills and Rivers Protection Act Reference Map

Wilderness Expansion

Mountain Bikers descend from Condor Peak

Protest Riders descend from Condor Peak, December 2007

H.R.3820, introduced by Judy Chu (CA-27), expands the boundaries of existing federally-designated wilderness areas within the Angeles National Forest. The bill also creates two new Wilderness areas, the Yerba Buena Wilderness and Condor Peak Wilderness.

Condor peak has long been a target for wilderness protection by environmental groups. It is also one of the last long-distance, high-elevation singletrack trails providing access to a mountain summit that remains open to bikes. It was included in a bill by Barbara Boxer, as a new wilderness area. Jim Hasenauer, then working with IMBA, led a protest ride on the trail showing that it was a high-value trail to mountain bikers on December 1, 2007. It was withdrawn from the Omnibus Public Land Management Act of 2009, but has never been forgotten by environmentalists.

CORBA worked locally with The Wilderness Society, Sierra Club and CalWild on the language and boundaries of the current bill for more than two years. Concurrently, IMBA worked at the national level and in Washington DC, to ensure that the proposed Wilderness areas would have no impact to existing trails open to mountain bikes.

Condor Peak trail is a steep, exposed and challenging backcountry trail.

For mountain bikers, Condor Peak trail was not up for negotiation. While we support protecting the character of the area, we wanted to ensure not only that bicycles could continue to access it, but also that mechanized maintenance (using chainsaws or other powered tools) would continue to be allowed. We’ve seen many trails that have been closed to bikes by Wilderness designations slowly deteriorate as volunteer groups cannot keep up with the existing trail maintenance backlog, and the Angeles National Forest has no trail crew of its own.

The solution we reached was to propose two Wilderness Areas on each side of the trail. The resulting legislation passed last week in the House creates the Yerba Buena and Condor Peak Wilderness areas, separated by a 100′ buffer through which the Condor Peak trail passes. Trail Canyon trail, the only other trail within the proposed Wilderness boundary, is cherry-stemmed out of the Wilderness allowing bicycle access to Trail Canyon falls and the nearby campground. A portion of the upper Trail Canyon trail, which has not been passable by bicycle in decades, will fall within the new wilderness boundary.

CORBA chose not to oppose this latest bill as it had no impact to mountain bike access. However, we could not support it fully, as it does nothing to enhance our mission of improving and increasing trail access for mountain bikes. We remain neutral on the bill, but if it passes, we will remain fully engaged in its implementation to further keep the interests of mountain bikers represented. 

There are two amendments being sought by CORBA and IMBA. Due to what appears to be a mapping error, three switchbacks along the Mt. Waterman trail dip a few dozen feet into the Wilderness area.  Though the Forest Service manages it as a non-wilderness trail, an amendment to the bill, by inserting “fifty feet south of the Mt. Waterman Trail” into the legal description of the wilderness area boundary, would correct that. 

Proposed Boundary Adjustment

Proposed Boundary Adjustment

The other amendment we are seeking is more challenging. The eastern Boundary of the Sheep Mountain wilderness passes directly over the summit of Mt San Antonio (AKA Mt. Baldy).  It is the only one of three peaks in Southern California over 10,000′ and above treeline to which bicycles have access (via the Devil’s Backbone trail). Wilderness advocates wanted to expand the Wilderness boundary eastward, entirely enveloping the Bear Creek trail in Wilderness.  The trail follows the Wilderness boundary, lying just inside the boundary by 25 yards. The trail would completes an incredibly challenging, high-elevation, backcountry loop. We are seeking an amendment to move the boundary 75′ west of the trail, removing it from wilderness, and opening the loop to bicycles. The boundary remains unchanged in the current legislation. 

These two amendments would remove approximately 75 acres of existing wilderness in a bill that adds over 31,000 acres of new Wilderness. These will be difficult asks for some, but we feel the ride loop this boundary adjustment would create a truly unique experience that is attainable nowhere else.

National Monument Expansion

The bill also expands the boundary of the San Gabriel Mountains National Monument, which was declared in October 2014. The boundary expansion makes sense geographically, as one of the biggest challenges in developing the current Monument management plan (as a Forest Management Plan Amendment) was the allocation of district-specific resources.

The Forest Service felt growing pains as they transitioned from three districts to one district and a National Monument (which is managed as a district). The Monument designation left out the most historically significant and most visited section of the Angeles National Forest, which includes the front country trails south and west of Mt. Wilson, and Mt. Lukens, and areas south of Big Tujunga. There was confusion among Forest Service staff when a vehicle, for example, was assigned to the district, but was stationed physically much closer to the Monument. It has taken years, but those challenges have been largely sorted out.

This time around, the bill requires the development of a management plan within three years (the plan amendment for the SGMNM took almost four years to complete). The current Monument designation had no impact to trail access for mountain bikes, and has brought in some additional funding and additional attention to our local mountains. In fact, IMBA and CORBA worked closely with the White House in 2014 to ensure that mountain biking was specifically mentioned in the monument proclamation ensuring its future acceptance. As a result, visitorship has steadily increased since the 2014 designation.

San Gabriel National Recreation Area

The third section of Chu’s bill will create a new National Park Service unit in the San Gabriel Valley. The San Gabriel National Recreation Area would become a new unit of the National Park service. It would comprise land along the foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains and corridors along the San Gabriel, Rio Hondo, and other rivers and open spaces in the San Gabriel Valley.

The proposed NRA would not change any land ownership, nor restrict any current land owner from managing their land (and their trails) as they are already doing. It allows willing landowners or land managers within the NRA boundary to partner with the NPS to improve recreation, habitat connectivity, water quality, wildlife corridors and public access. It doesn’t change any existing trails, and has the potential to bring additional federal resources to local projects.

With all these aspects of the bill, our biggest concern is that the agencies managing lands the bills protect are not adequately funded at a level necessary to do their job effectively. Creating additional financial obligations by the Forest Service and National Park Service, when current budgets are falling short, will bring its own set of challenges.

H.R.3820 has a companion bill in the Senate, S.1109, introduced by Senator Kamala Harris. We will continue to work towards those amendments in the Senate version of the bill, which will face a tougher challenge under the current administration. If the bills fail this year, we expect them to be reintroduced in future sessions of congress.

A fact sheet from Judy Chu’s office can be found at https://chu.house.gov

Rim of the Valley Corridor Protection Act

H.R.1708 was introduced by Congressman Adam Schiff, after several years where similar legislation failed to make it out of committee. The Rim of the Valley Corridor Preservation Act will expand the boundary of the Santa Monica Mountains National recreation area. The expanded boundary will include the mountains surrounding the Santa Clarita, San Fernando, Simi, La Crescenta and Conejo valleys. These include the Santa Susana Mountains, the Simi Hills, the Verdugo Mountains, and other adjacent lands and river corridors as shown below.

Rim of the Valley Corridor Map

The act does not change the current management of any land or trails within the expanded boundary. What it will do is allow willing landowners or land managers to partner with the NPS on projects that may enhance recreational access, improve habitat and wildlife connectivity, or provide capital improvements. It does not take land away from any existing landowners, nor does it force existing land managers to partner with the National Park service in any way. It has no downsides for mountain biking, and has the potential to improve trail access.

CORBA’s original mission statement and our operational boundary was defined as “the Rim of the Valley Corridor.” This bill is therefore very much at the heart of CORBA’s mission.

The bill was the outcome of a six-year feasibility study, authorized by an act of Congress in 2008. The study began in 2010, with CORBA engaged throughout the six-year process, attending public meetings, providing expert testimony and public comments, and encouraging public discourse and engagement in the process.

The study sought to determine if the area possess nationally significant natural or cultural resources; whether it is it a suitable and unique addition to the National Park System; whether it is feasible to add it to the Park System; and does it require direct NPS management, instead of stewardship from other groups or a public-private combination? The answer to the first three questions was Yes. Since the study concluded in 2016, legislation has been introduced twice without success. Last week the bill passed the House. In December, the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources passed the Rim of the Valley Corridor Preservation Act, moving it one step closer to the Senate floor.

We are fortunate in Southern California to have one of the most mountain bike friendly NPS units in the country, the Santa Monica Mountains NRA. Currently all National Park service managed singletrack trails in the Santa Monica Mountains are open to bicycles. In fact, the only trails closed to us are closed by the Boney Mountain State Wilderness, and California State Parks. We expect the NPS to continue supporting a multi-use trail policy in the expanded NRA. In fact, all of the land managers within the expanded boundary, with the exception of the City of Los Angeles, are multi-use friendly.

Lands within the Angeles National Forest are specifically excluded from the expanded NRA. The Forest Service and the National Park Service already have an arrangement in which they are able to share resources for the benefit of our public lands under the Service First authority, which was made permanent in 2012.

For these reasons we are supportive of the expanded boundary of the Santa Monica Mountains NRA in the current legislation. However, to our knowledge there is no additional budget allocated to the expanded NRA, nor to the new San Gabriel NRA in Chu’s bill. For these reasons we have been reluctant to throw our full support behind the bills as they can be considered unfunded (or underfunded) mandates. If these bills pass, we will advocate for increased funding, and will remain engaged with land managers in the development of their management plans, and to identify opportunities for creating or improving multi-use trails and mountain bike access.

The Rim of the Valley trail was originally envisioned by Marge Feinberg in the 1960s as a trail that encircles the San Fernando Valley, connecting communities with their local mountains. The trail itself is being piecemealed together as opportunities present themselves. The vision of a trail led to a broader vision to protect the mountains surrounding our valleys, and ultimately to H.R.1708. It has been a forty-year effort to protect the mountains that define our valleys.

A fact sheet on the bill can be found at https://schiff.house.gov

CORBA Membership Drive and Ride Feb 23

February 7th, 2020

 

Join us on February 23 for CORBA’s Membership Drive and Ride. Guided rides will be available for all skill levels.  Registration is required. The guided rides are free. You’ll have the opportunity to speak to CORBA Board members about issues that you care about.

Register for free at:  https://www.eventbrite.com

February 23rd, Sunday. Meet at 9am at the TOP of Reseda. Be ready to ride at 9:30am. Please arrive early at the CORBA table to renew or purchase a CORBA membership. One lucky member who renews at or before the event will win a CORBA jersey.

Renew your CORBA membership or join TODAY for as little as $39 for the year! https://www.imba.com/join/chapter/corba

WHO IS CORBA? WHY JOIN?

Concerned Off-Road Bicyclists Association was founded in 1987 to serve the mountain bicycling community of Los Angeles and surrounding areas including southern Ventura County. CORBA is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization committed to gaining and maintaining public trail access for mountain cyclists and the public at-large. CORBA encourages and promotes the safe and environmentally responsible use of unpaved roads and trails for bicycling and to educate the public about all aspects of off-road cycling and trails. Become a member to support CORBA’s ongoing efforts to improve bicycle access to trails. CORBA depends on membership dollars to fund our advocacy efforts and ongoing programs.

Backbone Trail Bridge Repair Fund

February 4th, 2020

With generous support from REI, CORBA has put $10,000 towards the National Park Service recovery efforts to rebuild bridges on the Backbone Trail that were burned in the Woolsey Fire.

In the wake of the Woolsey Fire, three bridges along the Backbone National Recreation trail were destroyed. It was some time before the National Park Service was able to assess the remaining abutments and determine when it would begin to replace the bridges. There have been many higher priority recovery efforts underway.  Knowing people were eager to get back on the trails, the Backbone trail was reopened with temporary stream crossings where the bridges once spanned. These are meant as temporary measures until the bridges are rebuilt and opened.

Steve Messer and Charlotte Parry, of SAMO Fund

Steve Messer and Charlotte Parry, of SAMO Fund

REI allowed CORBA to coordinate our fundraising with the Santa Monica Mountains Fund. The SAMO Fund also received a grant from REI.  REI’s Vote with your Purchase campaign added to that fund to benefit all trail users in recovering the Backbone trail to pre-fire conditions.

Combined, those funds from REI, CORBA and the Santa Monica Mountains Fund are being used to leverage additional revenue streams to meet the bridge replacement costs. The National Park Service is hoping to have the remaining funding in place, and the bridges under construction this year. While the grant was funded last summer, it has taken time for the NPS to get to this stage.

The remaining grant funding has supported volunteer work days, trailwork tool repair and replacement for the benefit of trails. We also thank the Santa Monica Mountains Trails Council, and the Conejo Open Space foundation, with whom CORBA volunteers have partnered on a number of projects in the fire-ravaged Santa Monica Mountains and Conejo Valleys over the past year.

We appreciate the ongoing support from REI and thank them for efforts.

 

Filmed By Bike Festival in Los Angeles

February 3rd, 2020

This weekend the 3rd Annual Filmed by Bike Festival comes to Los Angeles. Hosted by the Bicycle Culture Institute, it will be held at the Boomtown Brewery on Sunday, February 9, from 3 – 9pm.

There will be craft beer, exhibitors, movies & an awesome raffle. The Filmed by Bike Adventure Shorts program features inspiring tales of adventure, struggle and triumph on the rugged road. The path to expedition isn’t always an easy, but nature and a wild sense of curiosity lure us away from our computers, desks and schedules to enter the great wide open. These incredible films will wow audiences with their gorgeous cinematography and compelling stories.

Tickets are available at Eventbrite or at the door. ONLINE Tickets Get 1 FREE Raffle Ticket!

Stop by and say hello to the exhibitors, including CORBA, MWBA, Girlz Gone Riding, Montenegro Manufacturing (MMFG), Dahon Bicycles, Around-the-Cycle, Bicycle Culture Institute (BCI), cicLAvia, Adrian’s Epic Tall Bikes, Cohen Law Partners and RoadRunner Bags. There will also be a special panel discussion about the California Mountain Biking Coalition (a new state-wide MTB advocacy org), with board member and CORBA President Steve Messer.

 

February Skills Clinic photos posted February 3rd

February 3rd, 2020

On a sunny and warm day, we had a large turnout of 15 participants who were eager to learn (or brush up on) the basic skills of mountain biking.

The Basic Skills Clinic is always held the first Saturday of the month at Malibu Creek State Park.

You can see the photos in our February photo gallery.

The California Mountain Biking Coalition

January 30th, 2020

Beginning almost two years ago at the California Trails and Greenways Conference, CORBA President Steve Messer and advocates from around the state have been discussing the need for a statewide mountain bike advocacy organization. California is widely regarded as the birthplace of mountain biking. That also makes it the birthplace of mountain bike opposition, and of mountain bike advocacy.

For a time we had an IMBA representative, Tom Ward, who was a former California State Parks employee. He retired several years ago. Then we had an IMBA Regional Director, who was able to help coordinate advocacy efforts and peer learning opportunities with clubs from around the state. That position went away three years ago when IMBA ended their chapter program.

There has never been a dedicated regional organization to speak up for mountain bikers in Sacramento, or at the regional headquarters of the Forest Service, California State Parks, and other land managers.

Those discussions led us to form the California Mountain Biking Coalition (CAMTB), which had a soft launch in October 2019, when we received our Federal nonprofit EIN. We’re still waiting for our nonprofit determination letter, which will complete the formation of the organization.

The California Mountain Biking Coalition’s mission is to Improve and increase trail access for mountain biking throughout California by providing a unified statewide voice for organizations and individuals.

CAMTB is being organized to support and coordinate existing advocacy efforts from around the state, as reflected in the mission statement. The organization aims to help all California mountain biking clubs be more successful, and to advocate for legislation, ballot measures, regulations and best practices in recreation and natural resource management, with the goal of increasing mountain biking opportunities.

CORBA is proud to have been at the forefront of building this nascent organization. The new organization’s board of directors is comprised of successful California nonprofit advocacy group leaders, including the San Diego Mountain Bike Association, Access4Bikes Marin, Redwood Empire Mountain Bike Alliance, San Francisco Urban Riders, and of course CORBA.

The new organization is a 501c4 nonprofit, which gives us more freedom to engage politically. A 501c4 can directly lobby for legislation, election candidates, ballot measures, and other activities that might threaten the status of a 501c3. The caveat is that donations to a 501c4 are not tax-deductible.

CAMTB already has a lot on its plate. The group is currently raising funds through a founders round donation drive, corporate sponsorships, and other donations. We are having discussions with industry representatives around sponsorship and fundraising.

The board has contracted with an organizational consultant with a record of success in growing a mountain biking organization. Austin McInerny, former executive director of the National Interscholastic Cycling League, facilitated an all-day strategic planning session with the board’s first in-person meeting this week.

As we enter a new decade, we’re looking forward to taking on issues at a statewide level. Many California mountain bike advocacy groups are facing the same challenges with the same disappointing outcomes with California State Parks. By working in Sacramento, we hope to bring about change from the top down to benefit all California mountain bikers. That will take time, funding, and a lot of boots on the ground advocacy. We’re prepared to walk the halls of Sacramento, and to work directly with legislators and other advocates.

CAMTB is gearing up to take on those challenges. We’re not here to replace or supplant any existing advocacy groups, but instead to help strengthen them through resource and knowledge sharing, peer learning, and facilitated discussions.

If you’re heading to Sea Otter this year, stop by the CAMTB booth to say hi, and to learn about all that we’re working on.

 

 

SMMNRA Visitor Survey Results Released

January 30th, 2020

This week UCLA’s Luskin Center for Innovation published the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area Visitor Survey results. This new report builds upon previous visitor surveys and user counts, conducted in 2002. The data are needed to help guide management of the SMMNRA. A Briefing on Diverse Park User needs is also available.

Of specific interest to mountain bikers, is that this data will be used to inform and refine the ongoing Santa Monica Mountains Interagency Trail Management Plan development, which will help guide the respective agencies’ management of existing trails and construction of new trails. The Trail Management Planning process began in 1998. You read that correctly, 1998.

CORBA has for years been advocating for a change in use of trail designation in State Parks, where mountain bikers have the least singletrack trail access relative to the trail miles available to hikers and equestrians. CORBA has a list of trails we’ve formally requested to undergo a change in use. The State’s own policy requires them to respond to these requests. These changes are needed to improve connectivity, decrease congestion on some crowded trails, and further disperse recreational cycling. Our change in use requests date back to the 1990s, and not a single trail has undergone a change in use in that time.

California State Parks underwent a multi-year, multi-million dollar Programmatic Environmental Impact Report to supposedly streamline the change in use process. So far, the only outcome of that study was to retrofit the Tapia Spur trail–which was already open to bicycles–with pinch points, implemented so poorly that all but expert cyclists have to dismount to negotiate some of them.

State Parks have told us to wait for the Trail Management Plan to be completed, which will supposedly identify trails suitable for a change in use to allow bicycles. They have been telling us that for more than 15 years.

While we welcome the report, the surveyors acknowledge that cyclists and equestrians were the least likely to stop and take a survey. The report states that mountain bikers were the 3rd most observed user type in the visitor count, at only 7.7% of visitors. It’s important to note that the survey is of park visitors, not necessarily trail users. It includes respondents who were not necessarily there for trails, but were counted as hikers since they were on foot.

Due to this, and since the survey sites included many trails not open to bicycles, the results seem skewed to undercount cyclists. Any mountain biker or gravel grinder can attest that on trails where bicycles are permitted, bicyclists account for much more than the 7.7% of users reported in the survey. The report states that mountain biking participation has decreased from the 2002 survey. We know this is not true.

It isn’t surprising that 75% of mountain bikers who took the survey were male. That’s an improvement over the 86% male participation in 2002, but we’ve still got a long way to go.

Another important aspect of the survey are the demographics of park visitors. The data highlight social inequities in who has access to the park. The survey acknowledges LA County’s Park Needs Assessment, and corroborates some of that study’s findings. A majority of visitors were higher income, caucasian, educated, and english-speaking. It’s clear that the economically disadvantaged, and non-english speaking populations are far less likely to visit the National Recreation Area, and have a more difficult time doing so. They travelled further, and spent more time to get there.

CORBA’s Youth Adventures program is one way that we are helping to counter that inequity. About twice per month, at-risk youth who would otherwise have no access to the National Recreation Area are taken on a guided interpretive mountain bike ride.

The release of the survey results is an important step forward. Even with it’s acknowledged flaws and perceived inaccuracies, it is needed to guide all park infrastructure development, not just trails. For that we must continue to wait for the Interagency Travel Management Plan. After 22 years we’re hoping to see that plan sometime this decade.